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Citing Archives: Audio & Oral Histories

Using an item from the archives?

A credit line must be given for the publication, exhibition, presentation, or use of reproductions from the NBCA. Credit line to be written in the manner as follows:

Northern BC Archives, UNBC Accession No. ______.

Other Archival Citation Guides

Library and Archives Canada: How to Cite Archival Sources

If you are not required to use a specific citation style guide, we recommend using the How to Cite Archival Sources guide by Library and Archives Canada to cite archival sources.

View their guidelines and examples here: https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/services-public/access-documents/Pages/archival-sources.aspx

Citing Archival Audio and Oral History Interviews

Chicago Style

The CMOS has different rules for citing different types of audio content, specifically interviews (published vs. unpublished) vs. other types of audio recordings.

Examples for Interviews

"Unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes, though they occasionally appear in bibliographies. Citations should include the names of both the person interviewed and the interviewer; brief identifying information, if appropriate; the place or date of the interview (or both, if known); and, if a transcript or recording is available, where it may be found" (CMOS, 2017, 14.211)

Notes:

Unpublished interview:

  1. Beth Currie, interview by Jenny Fry, July 30, 1996, 2002.14.1.7.59, transcript, Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds, Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

Published interview:

  1.  Armand Handley and Gordon Walter, "For What it is Worth," interview by Jack Carbutt, CKPG, September 1980, https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/for-what-it-is-worth.

Bibliography entry for the above footnotes:

Unpublished interview:

Currie, Beth. Interview by Jenny Fry. July 30, 1996. 2002.14.1.7.59. Transcript. Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.
OR
Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds, 2002.14. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.
*Specific items are not included in a bibliography unless only one item from a collection is cited.

Published interview:

Handley, Armand and Gordon Walter. "For What it is Worth." Interview by Jack Carbutt. CKPG. September 1980. https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/for-what-it-is-worth.

Examples for Other Recordings

Notes:

  1. Marcia Langton, How aboriginal religion has become an administrable subject (lecture), April 1996, 2002.14.1.11.25.37, Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, 1 audio cassette.
  2. Margaret Benston memorial, 1991, 2002.14.1.11.25.03, Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds, 1 audio cassette.

Bibliography entry for single item:

Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds, 2002.14. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

Author-Date Bibliography entry:

In-text: In a recording of the memorial service for Margaret Benston...(Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds, 2002.14.1.11.25.03).

Reference List:

Marianne (Marika) Ainley fonds, 2002.14. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

Digital Items

Digital archival items are cited exactly the same way as physical items, with the addition of the URL at the end of the citation.

For more guidance/examples, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style sections 14.221-14.231 on Manuscript Collections.

APA

In-text citations:

Enclose the author's surname and date in brackets (and/or the title if the author is unknown or you are citing multiple works by that author with the same date).

(Author, date)

Bibliography entries:

General format: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Identification number, box #, file# or name, etc.). Name and location of repository.

Examples:

CP Rail. (1983). CPR advertising. [vinyl record]. David Davies Railway Collection (2013.6.18.3.4). Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George.

Interview (recording + transcript):

Robinson, Karlleen. (2010, March 29). Interview by Megan Heitrich. [Sound recording and transcript]. Japanese-Internment Oral History Project collection (2010.7.1-2). Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George.

Interview (no recording, only transcript):

Fawcett, Rita. (1998, September 29). An Interview with Rita Fawcett by Brain Fawcett. Brian Fawcett fonds (1996.2.9.9.02). Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George.

For more guidance/examples, refer to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association section 7.10 on Archival Documents and Collections.

MLA

In-text citations:

Give enough information to identify the source in the works-cited. Usually the author’s surname is sufficient, and/or title if citing multiple works by the same author, or an item with no known author.

Works-Cited List:

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook provides one example for using archival reference codes but conflates manuscripts and archives, which are not the same in Canada. The contextual information that archives preserve - in the form of the fonds and reference code - is essential for object identification yet appears at the end of the citation as though it is of least priority.

Examples:

Backhouse, John. Bob Harkins interview with John Backhouse, Librarian. Interviewed by Bob Harkins. 1978. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Bob Harkins Audio Recordings Collection 2002.12.2.2. Transcript.

Fawcett, Hartley. Brian and Hartley Fawcett: Alberta trip. Interviewed by Brian Fawcett. October 1979. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Brian Fawcett fonds 1996.2.4.1.18. Audio cassette.

Local Reading. 3 April 1980. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Barry McKinnon fonds 2000.6.12.007. Audio cassette.

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