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Citing Archives: Maps & Plans

Using an item from the archives?

A credit line must be given for the publication, exhibition, presentation, or use of reproductions from the NBCA. Credit line to be written in the manner as follows:

Northern BC Archives, UNBC Accession No. ______.

Other Archival Citation Guides

Library and Archives Canada: How to Cite Archival Sources

If you are not required to use a specific citation style guide, we recommend using the How to Cite Archival Sources guide by Library and Archives Canada to cite archival sources.

View their guidelines and examples here: https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/services-public/access-documents/Pages/archival-sources.aspx

Citing Archival Maps

Chicago Style

Examples

The Chicago Manual of Style gives the following direction when citing maps (emphasis added):

Information about maps can usually be presented in the text rather than in a note or bibliography. If a note or bibliography entry is needed, list the cartographer (if known) and the title of the map (in italics) or a description (in roman), followed by the scale and size (if known) and publication details or location of the map (see also 8.199, 14.235). Undated maps consulted online should include an access or revision date (see also 14.12, 14.13). (CMOS, 2017, 14.237)

For maps in archival collections, combine this rule with the rules for manuscript collections by including the reference code/accession number and the name and location of the repository.

Footnotes:

  1. Frank Swannell, geographer, Preliminary Plan Showing Travelled Route of the Bedaux Sub-arctic Exploration, 1934, 2004.1.1.3.1, 1:499910 scale, 106 x 84 cm, Phipps-Mackenzie Collection, Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/2004-1-1-3-1.

Bibliography entry for the above footnote:

If only citing a single item, the map, from a collection:

Swannell, Frank, geographer. Preliminary Plan Showing Travelled Route of the Bedaux Sub-arctic Exploration. 1934. 2004.1.1.3.1. 1:499910 scale, 106 x 84 cm. Phipps-Mackenzie Collection. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/2004-1-1-3-1.

If citing multiple sources from a collection:

Phipps-Mackenzie Collection, 2004.1. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

Author-Date:

If only citing a single item, the map, from a collection:

In-text: This map shows...(Swannell 1934)

Reference list:

Swannell, Frank, geographer. 1934. Preliminary Plan Showing Travelled Route of the Bedaux Sub-arctic Exploration. 2004.1.1.3.1. 1:499910 scale, 106 x 84 cm. Phipps-Mackenzie Collection. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/2004-1-1-3-1.

If citing multiple sources from a collection:

In-text: This map shows...(Phipps, 2004.1.1.3.1)

Reference list:

Phipps-Mackenzie Collection, 2004.1. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

Digital Items

Digital archival items are cited exactly the same way as physical items, with the addition of the URL at the end of the citation.

For more guidance/examples, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style sections 14.221-14.231 on Manuscript Collections.

APA

In-text citations:

Enclose the author's surname and date in brackets (and/or the title if the author is unknown or you are citing multiple works by that author with the same date).

(Author, date)

Bibliography entries:

General format: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Identification number, box #, file# or name, etc.). Name and location of repository.

Examples:

Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Engery, Mines and Resources. (1976). City of Prince George: Proposed electoral district boundary [Map]. The Honourable Iona Campagnolo fonds (2009.6.13.45.01). Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

For more guidance/examples, refer to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association section 7.10 on Archival Documents and Collections.

MLA

In-text citations:

Give enough information to identify the source in the works-cited. Usually the author’s surname is sufficient, and/or title if citing multiple works by the same author, or an item with no known author.

Works-Cited List:

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook provides one example for using archival reference codes but conflates manuscripts and archives, which are not the same in Canada. The contextual information that archives preserve - in the form of the fonds and reference code - is essential for object identification yet appears at the end of the citation as though it is of least priority.

Examples:

‚ÄčGeological Survey of Canada. Sketches of Harbours, Queen Charlotte Islands, 1878. Drawn by Bovey and Dawson. 1878, Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Archdeacon W. H. Collison fonds 2009.7.3.1.

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