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Citing Archives: Photographs

Using an item from the archives?

A credit line must be given for the publication, exhibition, presentation, or use of reproductions from the NBCA. Credit line to be written in the manner as follows:

Northern BC Archives, UNBC Accession No. ______.

Other Archival Citation Guides

Library and Archives Canada: How to Cite Archival Sources

If you are not required to use a specific citation style guide, we recommend using the How to Cite Archival Sources guide by Library and Archives Canada to cite archival sources.

View their guidelines and examples here: https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/services-public/access-documents/Pages/archival-sources.aspx

Citing Archival Photographs

Chicago Style

Examples for Photographs and Albums

Notes:

  1. David Davies, "Dunrobin" locomotive and saloon coach, June 1966, 2013.6.36.1.056.10, photograph, David Davies Railway Collection, Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/dunrobin-locomotive-and-saloon-coach-9.
  2. David Davies, A fence post or well digger, July 1966, 2013.6.36.1.082.08, photograph, David Davies Railway Collection, https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/fence-post-or-well-digger.
  3. "Lodestar" Plane on the Apron at Fort Nelson, ca. 1940, 2006.20.12.27, photograph, Northern BC Archives Historical Photograph Collection, Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/lodestar-plane-on-apron-at-fort-nelson.
  4. Album No. 1, 1926-1933, 2009.10.1, Fred Jeffery Photograph Collection, Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.
    *Note the shorter citation for two items from the same collection (see footnotes 1 and 2).

Bibliography entry for the above footnotes:

David Davies Railway Collection, 2013.6. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

"Lodestar" Plane on the Apron at Fort Nelson. ca. 1940. 2006.20.12.27. Photograph. Northern BC Archives Historical Photograph Collection. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/lodestar-plane-on-apron-at-fort-nelson.

Fred Jeffery Photograph Collection, 2009.10. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

*Specific items are not included in a bibliography unless only one item from a collection is cited.

Author-Date Bibliography entry:

In-text: In this photograph...(David Davies Railway Collection, 2013.6.36.1.056.10).

*Format Note: specify the format, in this case a photograph, in your text.

Reference list:

David Davies Railway Collection, 2013.6. Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

Date Note: "When citing manuscript collections in author-date format, it is unnecessary to use n.d. (no date) in place of the date. Dates of individual items should be mentioned in the text, when applicable." (CMOS, 2017, 15.54)

Digital Items

Digital archival items are cited exactly the same way as physical items, with the addition of the URL at the end of the citation.

For more guidance/examples, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style sections 14.221-14.231 on Manuscript Collections.

APA

In-text citations:

Enclose the author's surname and date in brackets (and/or the title if the author is unknown or you are citing multiple works by that author with the same date).

(Author, date)

Bibliography entries:

General format: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Identification number, box #, file# or name, etc.). Name and location of repository.

Examples:

Northwood Pulp and Timber Ltd. (1982, April). Reforestation - Forest Centre - New seedlings. [Photograph]. Northwood Pulp and Timber Ltd. fonds (2001.26.1.543). Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Retrieved from https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/reforestation-forest-centre-new-seedlings-1

[Photographs of Fred Jeffery]. (1921-1933). Fred Jeffery Photograph Collection (2009.10). Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC.

For more guidance/examples, refer to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association section 7.10 on Archival Documents and Collections.

MLA

Most archival photograph citation will not include an author unless the name of the photographer is known or the photograph is credited to an a corporate author.

In-text citations:

Give enough information to identify the source in the works-cited. Usually the author’s surname is sufficient, and/or title if citing multiple works by the same author, or an item with no known author.

Works-Cited List:

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook provides one example for using archival reference codes but conflates manuscripts and archives, which are not the same in Canada. The contextual information that archives preserve - in the form of the fonds and reference code - is essential for object identification yet appears at the end of the citation as though it is of least priority.

This one example can be used for all formats, with the option of adding a medium/format element.

Examples:

Collison Family Portrait at Kincolith, BC. [ca. 1905], Northern BC Archives, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC. Archdeacon W. H. Collison fonds 2009.7.1.007. https://search.nbca.unbc.ca/index.php/collison-family-portrait-at-kincolith-bc. Accessed 16 April 2019. Photograph.

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